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Parts A and B are here.  Today’s post concludes this story of my Congo River trip, 1973.

Wednesday midday the ITB and all the barges finally stopped for the first time in a place called Bolobo. No dock per se existed, but the lead starboard barge was near enough the bank that long planks were put out. No trucks disembarked. In almost no time, the entire perimeter of the flotilla was surrounded by pirogues, hundreds of them came out to meet us in the shallows, bringing passengers or picking them up, delivering or retrieving goods. A flurry of frantic exchange took place before the ship’s whistle sounded and, less than a half hour after stopping, Major Vangu reversed into the stream, again letting the current push us downstream and away from the bank far enough so that the engines could be moved “all ahead full” turning to port, and we continued the journey upstream.

Wednesday evening I lingered at the railing as I had previous evenings.  Carlos slept. A large waxing moon rose opposite a setting sun; the colors hypnotized me. Black oily waters, purple to blue to green to yellow reflections upon them, all framed by the greenery on the riverbanks. Later, we passed another river boat downbound, its searchlights probing the banks and the channel ahead. When the light beam swept over the foredeck, it illuminated literally hundreds of people there, sitting, standing in groups, or possibly asleep in the cool night air on the river.

By Thursday morning I recognized that in the age of air travel, a journey taking more than three days is an epic. The longer I was on the river, the more a comfortable monotony set in: the river, the banks, this island of humanity headed upstream felt like my new normal, and I loved it. The summer had given me confidence in speaking French, and I chatted with other first-class passengers. A Belgian professor was making his way to Kisangani; he said he’d done this river trip more than a dozen times and seemed to genuinely enjoy the trip and the post-colonial country. A Russian-educated Zairian engineer was going to work on a power transmission project; other than talking about his project, which I didn’t understand, and his dislike for Russian winters, he said little.

A bespectacled man said he worked for ONATRA. A soft-spoken man and very polite, he denied being a riverboat captain, but he was very knowledgeable about the river and the boats, and what I recall inspired confidence.  He conveyed that river navigation was not as chaotic as some might imagine. For example, he said it took eight years to become a licensed captain, some time in classrooms but mostly on the K boats. He talked about a crewman responsible each voyage for updating charts, both marking that information on charts themselves and communicating it somehow to passing river boats and the ONATRA office in Kinshasa.  Reflecting on this all these years later, I find this impressive.  On the other hand, this was way before GPS, and I saw no aids to navigation, and the country has never had a Coast Guard, begging questions about standardized landmarks and references.

I was especially intrigued by his explanation that Zaire bought boat propulsion systems from the United States; as the large Mississippi boats were in mid-century converted from steam to diesel, components of the US steam plants were sold for use on the Congo River system, especially for the smaller boats on the tributaries, where—as I would later see at my post—small river ports stockpiled firewood for the boats, the most plentiful fuel available to heat the water in the boilers for the steam plant. It’s unimaginable now that I never asked about the engine room of Major Vangu, but then again maybe I did and have just forgotten what he said. I’m quite sure Major Vangu was twin diesel, based on the smell of exhaust and pattern of the wake. Nor did I ask to see the wheelhouse. I now wish I knew what if any instrumentation there was.

After dinner Thursday evening, we heard references to a fête pour les commerçants, a party at the bar for the merchants, some of whom might be leaving the boat the next day in Mbandaka. Food was in greater amounts and with greater variety. I had by then discovered that our food was prepared in the accommodations barge alongside. I suspected it had been purchased from the river folk as well. The party meant people were drinking more.

The highlighted drink was a local moonshine called lotoko, which I’d hear more about later where I worked. With more potent drinks and louder volume on the soukous music, more people were dancing. The merchants must have been the same women who traded with the villagers who arrived by pirogue. The women were gorgeous at the party, as they danced, drank, laughed, talked.   I did notice the cabins in our first class section seemed to have lots of traffic, couples in and out, couples I’d not noticed before, leading me to suspect the merchants traded not only in manufactured imports and food staples, but I’m only describing what I saw, not judging.

Late morning Friday, I felt disappointment as buildings began appearing more frequently along the starboard side, then more decrepit boats half sunken along the bank. We were approaching Mbandaka, where soon the flotilla would stop. Carlos and I would leave the flotilla and go to a company house to figure out transport to our respective posts. In my case, many adventures, discoveries, and misunderstandings awaited me in the 600+ days ahead.

A way to conclude this account that took so many years to be written is to look at some of Joseph Conrad’s prose, a very different story about the same river. You’ve likely read it –or seen the Apocalypse Now adaptation—at some point and recall some descriptive lines:  “Going up that river was like traveling back to the earliest beginnings of the world, when vegetation rioted on the earth and the big trees were kings.   … A great silence, an impenetrable forest.   … The air was warm, thick, heavy, sluggish. … The long stretches of the waterway ran on, deserted … The broadening waters flowed through a mob of wooded islands; you lost your way on that river as you would in a desert, and butted all day long against shoals, trying to find the channel, till you thought yourself bewitched and cut off for ever from everything you had known once—somewhere—far away—in another existence perhaps.”

I was certainly far away from my previous existence, and the days in 1973 were the beginnings of a renewal for me. Away from all things familiar, I was becoming aware of a transforming self, certainly a different one for me than had I remained in the United States. My cynicism disappeared and curiosity took its place.  And Conrad’s memorable though entirely colonial title Heart of Darkness notwithstanding, the sun is blindingly bright except of course in rainy season when torrential rain on tin roofs was deafening.  Nights too could be deafening with sounds from the forest; the only human sounds might be drums marking some significant event or communicating it.  Since I lived near the Lulonga, a tributary of the Congo, occasionally the rhythmic breathing of a steamer, was audible from miles away.  Spending the next five years in the Congo watershed so isolated from my past, my people, facilitated my metamorphosis.

As with any journey and anyone’s life, I had no idea what lay ahead.  One surprise was that I’d travel or aspire to travel other great rivers. Half century later I’d be near another great river—great in its importance historically to others and myself but not in its size relative to the Congo, and one once as pristine as the Congo.  Shoals of regret and other obstacles always threaten, but you keep butting against them and pushing up whatever river or current or landform because it’s your river journey and you’ve never been to your destination yet; in fact, you don’t even know yet what that destination is or when you’re supposed to get there. So you just push past the obstacles and challenges, scramble aboard your ride, lean on the railings, watch what you don’t understand, and have a deep drink of it all.

Thanks for reading this.  Since I can offer no photos, check out River Journeys:  Congo River with Michael Wood, which shows a trip there not that different that what I saw.  For the talking drum, see minute 31.  For a steamer that could have come from the US, minute 59.  But it’s best to just watch the whole doc through when you have an hour to relax;  you’ll thank yourself.   I was disappointed by the music choice, since so much sublime traditional music has been recorded, like Missa Luba

For a discussion thread of contemporary Congo River issues from multiples perspectives, click here.

Adding this at the last moment:  Henry Morton Stanley also kept a journal.  Read extracts here.

Part A was  here.  Here is the start of the actual trip on the Integrated Tug Barge (ITB) that led to this blog.

Giant pusher tugs like the ITB Major Vangu were sometimes referred to as K-boats, because they ran between key river cities of Kinshasa and Kisangani. Waterfalls above Kisangani and below Kinshasa blocked continued navigation.

The other four ITBs were named Colonel Kokolo [see the image above from this May 2016 post], Colonel Tshatshi, Colonel Ebeya, and Capitaine Sakaroni, all named for early comrades of President Mobutu Sese Seko, de facto national leader from 1965 until 1997, formerly a soldier himself. Before independence, these boats bore names of Belgian places and men noteworthy in the colonial era.  All the ITBs and other boats had to be built on the river near Kinshasa above significant rapids, Inga Falls, where the water tumbles more than 300’ in less than 10 miles. Without a canal around the falls, river navigation is cut off from the Atlantic Ocean port of Matadi, 100 miles away.

Today these boats all have gone out of service because of sinkings, deferred maintenance, and breakdowns, although 2021 reports say that two of them are at some stage of restoration for return to service. I recognize now that the design is quite similar to that of the largest pusher tugs on the Mississippi V, USACE’s largest tug on the US river.

Replacing the ITBs these days is a newer and more precarious type of vessel locally called a balenière [whale boat, ironically], precarious because of the number of passengers that crowd aboard. Interesting photos and blog post can be seen here.

Cargo upriver would be imported manufactured goods. Downriver it included a wide variety of food from the forest and river to feed the burgeoning population of the country’s largest city and capital. Since 1973, Kinshasa’s population has grown from about 1.5 million to 15 million. Also, barges moved forest products like tropical hardwood logs downstream for export through the port of Matadi. Cargo patterns were more complicated than that, of course, because an unknown number of the “passengers” on the ITBs were actually traveling merchants who left the Kinshasa and Kisangani with wholesale supplies of fish hooks, ammunition, steel wire, antibiotics, salt, cloth, plastic utensils, and other imported goods to sell to or trade with river folk in exchange for food items, which the merchants would then sell in markets in the cities. Many of these merchants were women.

As I said earlier, Carlos, my traveling partner, had already spent a year upriver. He’d grown up speaking Puerto Rican Spanish and English, now seemed fluent in French and self-confident in Lingala, the Zairian language used by a security official wearing the flag-pin who challenged our tickets, possibly surprised by two non-Africans making their way through the crowds to the boat. Months later I understood through experience, which I could go into another in an installment, that the official’s challenging of our documents was just a shakedown; if denied entry to the boat, he calculated we would be willing to offer a bribe. On this occasion, he backed off, but bribes later became a too-common annoyance .

Lingala is a trading language that developed on a stretch of the Congo River system. A trading language, sometimes called a creole or lingua franca, is in fact linguistic infrastructure essential for communication among isolated places. Along this long waterway, an entirely different language is spoken every 50 miles or so.  To overcome this, a dominant language, Bobangi, eventually got simplified, to ease learning it and to streamline business transactions. Eventually referred to as Lingala, I can vouch that this language has easy grammar and vocabulary and many borrowed French words. I recall listening to a Mobutu speech once and hearing repeated phrases like “Yoka ngai. Ezali tres important! [Listen to me. It’s very important.]” During colonial times, Lingala was further simplified, regularized, and written down for use by missionaries and colonial administrators. Since it’s currently used for lyrics in soukous, a popular music with a following all over West Africa, familiarity has spread regionally, beyond the country’s borders. Announcements in airports were made in Lingala first, and then French. In eastern Zaire and in East Africa more generally, that role is played by Swahili, a name you may be more familiar with.

Challenges notwithstanding, Carlos and I got to the river’s edge and crossed the narrow wooden gangway. Once on board, a crewman showed us to the second deck, where “first class” cabins opened to wide, shaded hallways running along either side of the boat. Carlos and I would share a small starboard cabin with one bed. The all metal room was stifling hot from the tropical sun baking down on the steel deck above. The small basin in the room also had only hot water, since it came from a steel storage tank above the cabin just behind the wheelhouse, a sunny spot.

The deck barges, at least 100’ by 300’, were cabled together, two by two; they served as a parking lot for a dozen or more trucks, tarps tied securely over their cargo. They were 1960s Mercedes Benzes with rounded-cabs painted jade green and mustard yellow. Between the trucks, many dozens of 55-gallon drums, blue, red, black, or just rusty, were arranged in clusters for their different intended customers in ports upriver. I saw strong men roll some barrels on board, one by one across the wooden gangplanks. The flex in the gangplanks gave evidence of their weight. Other cargo was carried across those planks atop the heads of strong, barefoot men.

A surprise was the number of people already camped out on the deck barges in the shade created by the cargo trucks. I imagined they may have been the drivers along with any passengers that had made arrangements to ride in or atop the trucks once they drove off the barge. Of course, I may have misinterpreted that, along with many other things. What’s clear is that in the US, no passengers would ride here. In fact, no mention was ever made of life jackets; I never saw any, which explain the high loss of life whenever an ITB, ferry, or baleinière sinks.

A fifth barge had been lashed to the starboard bow quarter of Major Vangu. It was an accommodation barge with a roof and open sides. People spread out raffia mats or just cotton pagnes to claim some deck space where they sat or slept. A large forward area incorporated a steel trough, for cooking over firewood; I concluded the women cooking there operated a sort of commercial kitchen, selling food to passengers throughout the journey. I later learned that this barge required a second-class ticket, and the space on the cargo barges among the trucks and barrels was sold as third class.

It was late Monday afternoon when the ship’s whistle sounded, and after crew cast off lines, Major Vangu dropped downstream some distance as it distanced itself from the bank and then pointed itself toward the river center, a floating city powering upstream between the drifting hyacinths.

I spent the first hours leaning on the railing taking it all in: the geography and the river itself, its current, the hyacinth islands, the dark water, the low banks. It was much cooler out by the railing than in the cabin. Soon the few traces of urban Kinshasa to starboard and more distant Brazzaville to port disappeared, giving way to grassy banks, likely unchanged from what Henry Stanley and Joseph Conrad after him saw.

As dusk descended, a bell rang, calling first class passengers to dinner. A restaurant with metal chairs and tables was located in an area just forward of the first class cabins. The wheelhouse was above this, only accessible to the crew. The fluorescent-lit mess hall had screened portholes, side windows, and doors, but swarms of flying insects covered the lights. A dozen or more first-class passengers gathered for dinner: well-used metal plates held boiled manioc, spicy greens, and fresh, grilled fish. It was delicious, and Carlos and I washed it down with a large bottle of warm Primus beer each. Soukous music played from a record player behind the bar, as wide as the tug and along the forward wall. The bar was as beautiful as it was massive: varnished surfaces of several light-colored woods, inscribed with exquisite carvings of Congolese river village scenes.  Not having photos of this is just “wrong.”

That first night I recall not getting much sleep. Standing at the rail watching the river, I wondered about many things: the lives of several hundred people in our flotilla, my future, the next day.

Sunrise arrived gradually on the river, which varied in width from a quarter mile to several miles, although it was hard at any given time to know if we were traveling between long, sinuous islands, or in fact a narrow portion of the river that formed the international border between Zaire and Congo Brazzaville. Hindsight and our current access to satellite images  tell me it was the former; the single line drawn on maps in no way represents what the river actually looks like; it’s more like an irregular braid of channels draining the vast and wet forest. Low-lying land to the east was mostly flat, so when the first hints of dawn came, I imagined us at sea, with palms and other trees marking islands. 

It seemed meaningless to measure distances to the shore from the boat in abstract units like miles or kilometers; in fact, distance there was not measured at all but perceived in color: gray riverbanks are the farthest, as we approached them, they turned blue, and finally when you could easily swim to the edge, they looked green and yellow. In narrow parts of the river or at least the channel, the grass defining the bank made up a living breathing undulating being as our bow wave passed through. Land and water crawled past all day long, unexplored, water sometimes seemed oily or rusty brown from tannins from all the decaying organic debris from the vast forest.

Another riverboat passed, an assembled flotilla just like Major Vangu. Some ferries crossed ahead of us, but I never learned either their routes or their frequency. In this remote area not that distant from the capital, news and information didn’t always travel. Many pirogues, some motorized with 15-hp outboards and others with from two to eight standing paddlers, dipping and leaning on their oars in perfect synch, would approach from invisible villages along the river. (Click here for 55 images of pirogues;  I include the same link at the end.)

Major Vangu never even slowed down for approaching pirogues. The villagers loaded these pirogues deep with fish, fresh and smoked, chikwangue (fermented manioc paste wrapped in banana leaves), fruits of all sorts, some I didn’t recognize. Fresh and smoked fish was piled in woven baskets. One fish was easily five feet long, a foot in girth. I imagined its mouth could encompass a soccer ball. This monster Congo catfish (called el capitain ) weighed at least 100 pounds by my estimate. The merchant who bought it soon disappeared into the second class accommodation barge.

Some pirogues came with baskets of forest meat—monkeys, antelopes, crocodiles, scaly pangolins, and unidentifiable animals. The Congo basin and river is home to varieties and species as yet undiscovered. In most cases, the “bush meat” appeared to be smoked, hair singed off, but the original carcass still recognizable.  [Those are links to check out.]

Whenever villagers brought their pirogues alongside the flotilla, traveling merchants, mostly women and some with children helping them, would gather as they approached to study the products in the deeply-laden dugouts. A merchant wanting to buy a basket of goods tossed a wet rag onto those goods into the pirogue, as a way of placing the bid. A few arguments, vicious in tone and volume although I understood nothing they yelled at each other, happened whenever wet rags landed on a basket almost simultaneously. A similar image that comes to mind now is excited traders on the stock exchange floor when the market is rallying or tumbling.

 Given the size of these pirogues and their minimal freeboard, I marveled at the skill and speed of the paddlers. They arrived at night as well as during the day. When we passed some larger though mostly invisible villages nestled in the trees along the stream, sometimes pirogues were rafted up four deep alongside the flotilla. “Landing” was always the same; at the right moment the bow person would drop the paddle, grab a painter, and jump onto the barge, even if that meant walking across one or several pirogues closer to the barge. Making it even more remarkable, that person would step only on the gunwales, not inside the pirogue itself.

 But at least once, I saw paddlers misjudge the size or speed of the flotilla bow wave as they approached, only to lose their balance and capsize, sending paddlers and all their baskets of wares into the river, an incalculable loss.


To be concluded in part 3.  Again, here are 55 images of pirogues, typical of the ones I saw.


Jumping forward for a marginally related story:  When I got to my post and got “adopted” by a guy who became my resource and local guide, I told him I wanted to buy a pirogue.  His name was Bontoli and he kept making excuses for not making arrangement, even while taking me into the forest to observe as he hunted.  Later he told me that he was so horrified by the idea that in a pirogue I might drown, be attacked by hippos or anacondas, or eaten by crocodiles that he went to the local fisherman and threatened them NOT to sell the white guy a pirogue.  I’m not sure what he threatened to do to anyone who sold me a pirogue, but no one would talk to me.  Bontoli likely saved my life.  Melesi mingi, ndeko ngai.  I’ve many stories about Bontoli, below, the only photo I have of him, and yes, monkeys were a menu item, market price per pound being calculated here.




How did I get interested in tugboats?   Here is an autobiographical and long response, even though it’s only part 1 of 3, or in this case, A of A B C.   Bear with the scintillating prose, but I possess nary a single photo from this period.

To answer the frequently asked question above,  I’ve alluded to the Congo River and an unplanned trip I took almost half a century ago, my first gallivant. Memory of that voyage still burns brightly even though the trip took a mere four days and nights.  As I approach my 70th birthday, I’ve written this overdue account. Open an internet map and follow along; the following Congolese (DRC) cities are mentioned in this order, not all the river voyage: Goma, Bukavu, Kinshasa, Mbandaka, Matadi, Bolobo. The country then was called Zaire, which I’ll use in this narrative. So, let me set more of the scene.

I was 21 when this trip on the Congo River swept me along. In 1973, I had a young person’s standard illusions of invulnerability, too little wisdom or information to know fear. Today my fears discourage a repeat trip, although I occasionally consider doing it this way, mostly to take photos, but the lens in my mature brain would differently process the now-changed country and its river traffic.

Back then I didn’t even own a camera. I subscribed to the notion that with a pen and notebook I could describe everything; the error there is failing to predict how many years would pass before I returned to read those descriptions. Today when I open those notebooks, the paper is crumbling and either the ink bled into the paper or sentences I can read have references so piecemeal and cryptic that memories triggered are faint, almost useless. My memories have the challenge of illuminating across half a century, but I trust them more than the notebooks. Another source are the lush Archives of Everything called the internet, a jungle of information.

Call me no Charlie Marlow; although he and I have yarn spinning in common, Marlow’s detail is as lush as the river, but then again the literary giant Joseph Conrad himself devised the character Marlow to narrate a the journey to an intimate audience seated in a yawl around him, and they were likely NOT drinking tea. Although Conrad knew the river from the wheelhouse, I was a passenger, and new to exotic places. As you read this blog post, feel free to drink whatever you choose. As I said earlier, my account is long, so pour yourself an extra. I’ve divided the account into three parts. If you choose to think I was intrepid in taking this trip, fine, although the truth is that as a quite typical 21-year old, I saw fewer causes for alarm, an innocent abroad not quickly enough moving from naïveté to experience.

It was the summer that I traveled abroad for the first time, a July series of flights from western New York to to eastern Zaire, a town called Goma.  Then I got on a bus that crept along a narrow, sinuous road beside a volcanic lake the last 120 miles to Bukavu, specifically, a Peace Corps training center in a place beyond my imagining. Bukavu was a hilly border city of 150,000 on Lake Kivu, one of the Great Rift Valley lakes in the center of the continent. To be clear, most of the 150,000 inhabitants lived in wattle/daub houses with no electricity or running water. Bukavu in colonial times (pre-1960) was referred to as the Switzerland of the Congo, an almost temperate getaway for wealthy colonials—many working in the hot, mineral-rich south—who built villas in stone and concrete curvilinear Art Deco homes and business district.  Click on the image below for the Atlas Obscura story.

After 1960, however, many of these buildings were abandoned, some damaged in the Simba rebellion, and almost all in decay, some with roofs collapsed. As impressive as they were to me, an outsider, who saw them as beautiful ruins, I understood they were for the locals a painful reminder of colonial history, practices, abuses.

In Bukavu, I studied French and Lingala, adapted to life in a new language, spending long days in small groups speaking only French. In free time, I explored on foot, with Amy—also a trainee—who spoke better French than I did and who insisted we speak only French as we hiked to markets, farms, and even had adventures (for another telling) along the Ruzizi River border with Rwanda. We both passed language tests, and became paid volunteers with the company (Peace Corps or PC, hopefully not mistaken for a member of a group Conrad mentions, the Eldorado Exploring Expedition). We were both disappointed that Amy was assigned to stay in the Bukavu area, and I to the opposite side of the country, but we said our adieus, expecting to meet up again. My destination was a boarding school near Mbandaka, a river town on the Equator itself and in Equateur Province, where I’d work for the next two years. I never saw Amy again, although I know she has done well.

At the time I knew little more than that Equateur was huge, much of it hard to get to, the least populated province of the country, the heart of Africa’s equatorial forest, the tropical wilds. I had already heard anecdotes about Equateur from my traveling comrade, Carlos, who had been a volunteer the previous year at a post not far from my destination.

To get there, Carlos and I took an Air Zaire DC-4 from Goma to the capital, Kinshasa, the most direct route. Once in Kinshasa, however, we learned that the upcountry airplane had broken down, canceling flights to Mbandaka, possibly for six weeks. With that information, we returned to the company office in Kinshasa, hoping this allowed us to be “free” until that airplane was repaired.

I had a work ethic already, but I was not ready to get to work. Time had sped by that summer, bringing so many changes that I wanted to stave off the future for a few weeks longer. I can’t stress enough how different everything becomes when you speak a new language all the time. At the training center, we were strongly encouraged to speak only French from waking up until going to sleep. This is called language immersion; you acquire a new language much more quickly if you immerse every waking hour in that language. I considered my language learning a success when I first dreamt in French. Changing languages is like changing lenses; you see the world and your interactions in it differently, you think in the new language, and you might behave differently. My “French” personality is less serious, much freer, a feeling I retain to this day whenever I’m speaking that language.

Going upcountry to Equateur also meant isolation, I imagined, whereas Kinshasa in the company hostel and money in my pocket meant socializing with new friends, other volunteers, the newest of whom had been in the country only since early July, like me. Amy wasn’t there, but being with these companions helped me process my transformative summer. They for the most too were abroad for the first time, although one volunteer had grown up in near Kinshasa, the son of missionary parents. He shared much insightful information about the country and its cultures.

“Use an alternate route but get up there ASAP” the company told Carlos and me when we mentioned the broken-down airplane. An alternate route meant only one thing, the river, the natural infrastructure. You couldn’t drive a very direct route along the river through jungle; that might take two weeks or longer with a Land Rover; no public road transport existed there, and the roads subject to washouts. River navigation was managed by ONATRA (Office National des Transports). At their ticket office, an agent said the next upbound riverboat boarded in three days, with departure whenever boarding was complete.  Previous tugster posts about Congo River transport can be found here.

Departure day soon arrived, and we caught a taxi from the hostel to the port. The river port was not an orderly place like an airport. Taxis, huge cargo trucks, motorbikes, porters with hand trucks, and hundreds of people moved slowly, randomly but decisively toward the water’s edge. Describing that crowd requires words like chaotic but also colorful and diligent. Zairian women, many of whom carried baskets or bundles on their heads and maybe a baby on their backs, wore bold colorful cloth wraps called pagnes, sometimes matching headscarves and tops, never pants or anything factory made, rarely shoes. Many men dressed in clothing washed in muddy water so often it seemed a uniform ochre; others wore parts of green military uniforms or—if economically or politically elite—they wore an abacost in shiny blue or brown fabric and patterned after what the president wore; political party members might wear a lapel pin with the green/yellow/red national flag. Men carrying the heaviest loads—on their heads—did so bare-chested and, like the women mentioned earlier, barefoot.

Descending a taxi, Carlos and I hired one of the many men there with a push cart—a box on an axle between two compact automobile wheels—at a small price to move our bags to the boat, which the ticket identified as Major Vangu. We then plunged ourselves into the crowd, pushing gently toward the river, funneling through the most obvious opening between rickety one-story buildings and improvised fences made of roofing sheets and car sheet panels. Ahead, boats of all sizes and in mostly decrepit condition were concentrated along the bank. Some were rusty wrecks, oxidation the same shade of ochre as the exposed dirt, the clothing, and the unwhitewashed buildings. Partly beached barges linked with wooden beams formed an improvised pier. The river current was visible from random floating islands—clumps of water hyacinths—hurriedly moving downstream toward Inga Falls several miles away. The hyacinths, with pretty white flowers, were an invasive species, introduced by a well-intentioned colonial who thought they might be an exotic decorative plant. They thrived and now they floated everywhere; some lodged between the boats, giving the impression of a ragbag marina inside a garden. Countless dugout canoes called pirogues, impossibly narrow and moved by one or more standing paddlers, navigated randomly as well in this anarchy of boats and plants.

Major Vangu didn’t look like a riverboat. It was more like a flotilla, a set of barges cabled together and at the downstream end, the prime mover, an immense “four-decker” tugboat. It had huge push knees on its squared off bow. The top deck—the wheelhouse—extended only about a third of the way toward the stern. It had once been painted white, but the surface was dulled, as if it had not seen paint or wash since Congolese independence in 1960, maybe since it left the Congo River shipyard in the 1950s or earlier with a Belgian name I’ve not yet been able to discover. Major Vangu was one of five integrated tug/barges (ITBs as they seem everywhere referred to in the records, French language records I might add) that moved goods and people the roughly thousand miles between Kinshasa and Kisangani, with about once-weekly departures from those terminuses. The barges had no names that I recall, but they could have had numbers that I didn’t even notice.

To be continued in parts 2 and 3.  Meanwhile, since there are zero photos here, check out this panoply of Congo riverboat images at this site.  The sixth image below “sans nom” 1974 Yangambi” might very well be Major Vangu.  It is as I remember it.



Philadelphia Express came into the sixth boro yesterday with stated destination . . . . Karachi!@#!  Made a wrong turn?  More on Karachi later in this post.

But here’s my question . . .  see that flag to the left of the name?  That’s the country of registry.  Recognize it?

Here’s more of a clue to that ship’s registry . . .   GA.  Got that?

Here’s the ship, photo by Michele McMorrow, as taken in the humid afternoon from Sandy Hook.  I wonder if the Hapag is deliberately painted out.

Back to the flag . . . Gabon!@#!   Could you locate that on a map? 

Before you go to google, have a very informative 21-minute listen to Sal Mercogliano’s “Ships and the Flags They Fly.”  Gabon is not mentioned.  

I’d missed the fact that Gabon has even had a ship registry since 2019, when it was created as a joint enterprise between the government of Gabon and an Emirati company based in Dubai.  Read more about it here and here.

As for location, the country has as neighbors, the Gulf of Guinea, Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, and Republic of Congo.  The Bongo family, father and then son, have held the presidency since 1967.   That should speak volumes.

Back to Karachi . . .  have a listen to Dr. Mercogliano’s post “The Fall of Afghanistan:  Its Impact on Shipping and the Silk Road” from a few weeks back on the unexpected supply chains that were used during the 20-year US presence in Afghanistan.  The role of such ships as SS Algol, SS Cornhusker State, MV Maj. Bernard F. Fisher, and MV A1C William H. Pitsenbarger are mentioned.

I still find it odd that the first Gabon-registry vessel enters the sixth boro with Karachi as its stated destination.  By the way, it’s a Hapag-Lloyd ship previously US-registered.  Or is it?  Is there significance to the fact that all the “Hapag” and the tops of the “l”s are painted out.  And what does the stern list as port of registry, Gabon or Libreville, its capital city?  And then, I might just be missing the key detail(s) here.

If you want to check it out, it’s currently on the outside in Port Elizabeth.


The Soo is open, the SL Seaway is open, and now after 6 days, 3 hours, and 38 minutes of blockage . . . the Suez is open.

I’d started this post before Ever Given was freed and intend it as a survey of some of the tugs involved, here from largest to smaller. Obviously dimensions do not tell the whole story;  in fact, dimensions tell only the story of length and width, but most of these are not harbor tugs.  The largest is Alp Guard, 243′ x 69′ and generating just over 24000 hp.

Next are two quite similar Suez Canal Authority tugs, Ezzat Adel (226′ x 52′)

and Baraka 1, same dimensions, built in 1993 one year before Ezzat Adel.

Carlo Magno comes in at 180′ x 49′, still larger than anything in the sixth boro.

Now we’re at the scale of sixth boro tugs, although several in the boro are larger.  Basel 2 measures in at 119′ x 38′.

Salam 8 and 9 were there, coming in at 115′ x 36′

Svitzer Port Said 1 and 2 measure 104′ x 43′ and generate 6772, very similar to the largest sixth boro assist tugs.  For example Capt. Brian and Ava M. generate 6770 hp.

Mosaed 3 comes in at 98′ x 36′.

Of course, tugs weren’t the only factor.  Someone like Resolve or Smit Salvage taking charge is needed to orchestrate the efforts, which include dredging as well. If you’ve not seen this interview with salvage master Nick Sloane, it’s an enlightening listen.

Credit for photos is embedded in the photos;  click on each to see it.

Any errors, WVD.

Was this an event just waiting to happen?  See here.


I had something different planned for today, but one does not plan the news.  Since I’m map-oriented, I’m sharing what I found on the “maps” of the Ever Given story, the 20,000 teu+ container ship acting as a cork in a bottleneck.

Below is the context for the story.  If you’re not that familiar with the bigger context, grab a map showing the SE corner of the Mediterranean Sea.  On the map below, notice Alexandria, Cairo, and Tel Aviv.  Aqaba is lower right.  Color code is as follows:  red = tankers, green = freighters, aqua = tugboats.  Also note the absence of traffic for a portion of the canal (that line) going southward from Port Said. Normally there’d be red, green, or aqua icons there.

Here’s a closeup of the location where Ever Given has wedged itself across the canal.

Click on the image below to get a recent Reuters story.  Here from is another story with great images.

Note the aqua-colored  tugboats, out of scale, attempting to extricate the cargo vessel.

With a cork in the bottle, so to speak, ain’t nuttin goin’ nowhere, as I might say in a different setting.

The image below shows more context than the image above.  Suppose your rush order too big for air cargo happened to be on one of those ships.  Actually, there’s cargo halted there for hundreds of millions of folks.

The image below shows bottled up southbound traffic (mostly) unable to proceed beyond Ever Given south of Qaryat al Jana’in.

The image below shows the backup so far in the Mediterranean, again mostly southbound traffic, mostly Asia bound.

It ain’t over yet, and it takes a lot more fuel to get between Europe and Asia by sailing around Capetown.

Personal note:  I sailed from Jeddah to Port Suez 35 years ago and saw lots of traffic on the Red Sea in both directions.

Credit to marine for allowing these views.

Note:  Tomorrow I may slip my post time a little; you’ll understand, I hope, tomorrow.  Mentioning hope, check out this link to learn about, among other things, an iron cow!!  Hope, SS Hope, was born of USS Consolation, AH-15.

Anyone know the US first hospital ship?   When did USNS Comfort last call in the sixth boro?  Answers follow below.

I used the photo below just over five years ago in a post about Red Cross ships;  tanker SS Rose City became USNS Comfort in 1985.  Study the photo and compare it to the current iteration.

I’m thrilled Mercy has been activated in the west and Comfort will arrrive here, but only a very short time ago there was serious consideration to mothball and maybe scrap at least one of these vessels. Also, as positive as they are, what they are not is panaceas. Mechanical, electrical, and other bugs need to be sorted out on the ships.  Crews need to resolve dynamics;  after all, even two months ago all those crews were happily working elsewhere, and as USNS ships, they have hybrid civilian/military crews.

And the US first hospital ship, establishing a “makeover” tradition, began life in Cape Girardeau, MO in 1859 as a Mississippi River steamer.  The Confederacy transformed it into a barracks, the US army captured it, and she was made into a hospital ship. I believe she carried the name Red Rover throughout all three lives.   Nursing staff on USS Red Rover were members of the Sisters of the Holy Cross.

Click here for a ketch used to evacuate wounded going back to 1803.  What were we involved with 217 years ago?

USNS Comfort made her last call in NYC was in September 2001, and I honestly didn’t recall that.  Does anyone have photos to share from that deployment?

Finally, I’ve mentioned it before, but back in 1980 SS Rose City had a young crewman named John Moynihan, who wrote a noteworthy account of his hitch aboard the vessel.  It’s a great book in itself;  his father was a senator from New York.

Long ago and faraway, I boarded this hospital ship on a tributary of the Congo River;  that it operated there at all is a scintilla of evidence that even a dictator can do good things by his subjected peoples.  I’m unable to learn the disposition of this ship, SS Mama Yemo, but a little researching did lead me to understand that it was developed by a US doctor, William Close, whom I’d love to learn more about.

SS Rose City photo thanks to William Lafferty;  sentiments and filtering of info by WVD, who thanks you for keeping your distance.

Hats off to the folks dredging USNS Comfort‘s berth even as we read.

And finally, a request . . .  if you get photos of her arrival tomorrow, consider sharing them with this blog.



Ooops!  It’s later than I thought.

When Cape Moss arrived in the sixth boro the other day, she was 16 days and 10 hours out of Cape Town.

Kirby Moran assisted as she entered the Kills.

Compared with the largest container vessels that come into port here these days, this 2011 ship is modest.

It makes me wonder what goods travel via container between South Africa and the US.  She left the next day for Baltimore, and has now departed there as well.  Think the trade in goods and services between South Africa and the US is greater than $10 billion?  Find your answer here.

All photos, WVD, who wishes everyone health.

Any idea what SoG might be?  If you haven’t guessed by the end of this post, the answer will be listed there, along with credits.   You’ll agree with me that the assortment of containers are the same as you’d see on any back field along the edges of the sixth boro.

Kjella, 1957, I first thought was an unusually shaped tugboat, but better sources than myself say it’s a RORO ferry, located in the port of Algeciras.

From the Atlantida fleet in Algeciras . . . I believe this is Paquita Moreno. 

From the Boluda fleet, it’s Sentosa Ocho.

Also from Atlantida, it’s Bay Explorer, unusually English in name.

The Tangier fishing fleet here is definitely NOT catching any fish.

Charif al Idrissi was launched in 1986 and serves as a fisheries parol vessel based in Agadir.

Here’s a closeup of the stack design.

Jaguar is part of the Amasus fleet out of Delftzijl, shown here headed for the Atlantic.  For more photos, click here.

Over at the OILibya dock in the port of Tangier is a tug registered in Malabo (Equatorial Guinea) but I can’t quite make out the name.  Anyone help?  As an international ship register, Equitoguinea has 40 vessels, fewer than Bolivia.

SoG . . . Strait of Gibraltar, or Jabal Ṭāriq if you wish.

And the photos–taken on both sides of the Strait–come thanks to JED, not to be confused with Jed.  JED first commented here exactly 10 years and one day ago.  And I’ve always been grateful for his contributions.


A few years have already passed since I posted the first in this series, which I should have called and I’m still in search of a photo of the ITB Major Vangu back in 1973 and 1974.  But I was thrilled to open my email the other morning and find these photos taken in 1992 by Matt Schoenfelder.  Check out his impressive range of galleries here.

The huge pusher tug in the photo below is Colonel Kokolo, recently refurbished and returned to service on the Congo River.  Click here for a map of key waterways in the Congo;  upper center, I lived west of Basankusu for two years teaching at a high school.


Matt writes, “I was looking through the web for some images of the Onatra barge from the Congo River and came across your site and read that you had traveled up the Congo River some years ago (my note:  1973-4). In 1992, together with a German man I met in Kisangani, I bought a dugout canoe and the two of us paddled 4 weeks down the Congo River to Kinshasa. Needless to say it was the adventure of a lifetime! Anyway, I have just recently scanned some of the old fuzzy and scratched film and thought you might appreciate a few images. From Kinshasa I wanted to get to Zambia and the “best” option available was to get back on the river and travel by barge to Ilebo, where I could take the train down to Lubumbashi. Well it sounded nice on paper but turned out to be an ordeal (as was ANYTHING in Zaire at that time!!) After the 4 weeks on the canoe I then spent another 13 days moving slowly upstream to Illebo on the river (tug and ) barge, which was supposed to be 5 days. The 3-day train trip from Ilebo to Lubumbashi took 30 days…walking would have been quicker! I added that last bit as I will include a few shots from the river barge I took to Ilebo. The images are far from high quality but you may find them interesting nonetheless.

That (tug and ) barge was called the Wandeka IV. Actually I was only on it for 8 of the 13 days. It broke down somewhere along the Kasai River and I was able to get on a German [vessel] from the company Strabag. I don’t have any images scanned of that barge but should I get around to that I’ll send you a few.
Incidentally, in that image of the Wandeka you will notice a small bag just behind me. This was my “day pack” and all it carried was my money. In Kinshasa (after being robbed at gunpoint by the police) I was able to cash in 200$ of travellers checks – after several days of going from bank to bank and hearing that they simply didn’t have any money. At that time 1 dollar was 2 million Zaires (when I entered the country 1$ = 1,000,000 Zaires – 3 months later when I finally left it was 1$ = 5,000,000 Zaires!). The largest note they had available at the bank was 50,000 Zaires so that 200$ translated to 8,000 bills and it was a huge load to tug around with me! I carried it with me for the next 6 weeks, happy whenever I could pay for something and relieve the load a little.


I doubt I would ever repeat that journey but it was perhaps the most incredible chapter in my travels. Hardly a pleasure but fascinating and exciting nonetheless.”


I remember from my experience that riding on the tug was considered first class;  the folks on the barge in the photo above . .  well, they would be traveling second class.

Many thanks to Matt for getting in touch and sharing these photos.

Some of my scratchy old Congo photos can be found here.  And yes, that person below was me as a mere young manster.


Bokakata, DRC (then Zaire) 1973

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June 2023